首页 >  2008, Vol. 12, Issue (6) : 1993-2002

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10.11834/jrs.200806115

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汶川地震应急监测评估方法研究
民政部国家减灾中心,中国空间技术减灾应用研究中心,北京 100053
摘要:

以汶川地震灾害应急遥感监测评估过程为例,介绍了利用遥感技术等手段对巨灾灾情进行应急监测评估的技术方法,并重点对四川、陕西和甘肃3省受灾较重的152个县(市、区)进行了应急评估.结果表明,汶川地震房屋倒损严重,受灾人口分布点多面广,受灾程度总体上与断裂带分布呈明显对应关系,山区受灾重于平原,农村重于城镇.四川省汶川、北川、青川、绵竹等12个县(市、区)受灾极为严重,甘肃省文县和陕西省勉县等受灾相对较重,利用地面调查数据验证,证明了评估结果具有较高的准确性.提出了基于遥感数据研判、空间分析外推技术的自下向上、逐级汇总的应急评估技术路线,能够发挥遥感数据的优势,也能保证应急评估的时效性,同时有利于组织大规模协同运行与综合结果生成,具有良好的科学性和可操作性,特别适合于巨灾灾情遥感应急评估工作.

Study on Urgent Monitoring and Assessment in Wenchuan Earthquake
Abstract:

Wenchuan Earthquake,8.0 Richter Magnitude, is themostdestructive,mostwidely-spread and the one entails themostdifficulties in disaster-relief since the founding ofPeoples Republic of China.Alongwith the earthquake,many secondary disasters, such asmountain collapses, landslides and debris flows and dammed lakes occurred and enlarged the disaster.After the earthquake,NationalDisasterReduction Committee(NDRC)and Ministry ofCivilAffairs(MCA) trig-gered the domestic and international satellite remote sensing data achieving mechanism mi mediately, including the Interna-tional CHARTER Space and MajorDisasters.The achieved datawere used for the continuous disastermonitoring and urgentdisaster assessment, and provided effective information in disaster relie.f This paper establishes an urgentassessmentmethod for catastrophe, which is based on the interpretatingwith remote sensing data and the deducting by spatial analysis. Taking the urgent assessment using remote sensing data during the Wenchuan Earthquake as an example, this paper apply themethod into the assessment for the 152 counties ofSichuan,Shanxi andGansu provinces. The results show thatbuildings are destroyed seriously, and the affected population distribute in a verywide area. In genera,l the disaster loss isdistributed corresponding to the faultzone. The disaster loss inmoun-tain area is larger than that in plain area, and the damage in village area ismore serious than that in urban area. Wen-chuan, Beichuan, Qingchuan, andMianzhu and other 8 counties in Sichuan province are the most seriously damaged counties. Wen County in Gansu province andMian county in Shan xi province are serious damaged. By validation with field investigation, the efficiency of the assessmentwas approved. The paperdevelopes a step-by-step collectionmethod of assessment, which takes the advantage of the remote sensing data andmeets the efficiency need ofurgentdisaster assessment. Themethod is also useful for the coordinative operation and comprehensive assessment. Themethod is scientific,applicable, and feasible in disaster assessmentwith remote sensing data during catastrophe.

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