首页 >  2018, Vol. 22, Issue (s1) : 146-161

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DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20187256

收稿日期:

2017-06-16

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岩石受力红外与微波辐射变化机理及地应力遥感关键问题
1.中南大学 地球科学与信息物理学院, 长沙 410083;2.东北大学 资源与土木工程学院, 沈阳 110819
摘要:

地应力遥感是遥感科学的新范式,是打开地震遥感预测大门的金钥匙;岩石受力附加电磁辐射的产生机理、感知模型及定量分离是地应力遥感的理论基础。本文简要回顾了地震红外及微波遥感异常研究的历程,系统梳理了固体力学中电磁辐射实验观测的研究成果,包括材料应力与损伤的热像分析、岩石受力破裂过程的红外成像观测、红外波谱辐射观测及微波辐射观测。系统总结了岩石受力电磁辐射变化机理研究的代表性成果,包括矿物晶体压电效应、裂纹尖端放电效应、自由电子逃逸效应、孤立系统能量平衡等岩石物理机制;分析了岩石受力附加电磁辐射变化的量子力学机理,包括晶体原子振动能级跃迁及矿物分子转动能级跃迁;讨论了岩石介电常数变化效应、地表发射率变化效应等遥感物理机制。结合地应力变化驱动下的地球系统耦合现象,分析了地壳岩体电流激发效应、地下氡气逸出效应的原理与不足,总结提出了地球系统地震响应的多尺度性。最后,面向中国地球物理卫星重大计划,提出了地应力遥感亟待突破的三大关键问题,即地应力遥感卫星的波段优选与组合配置、构造活动及地震前兆的遥感识别与复合诊断、地应力响应现象的协同观测与智能分析。

Mechanisms of altering infrared-microwave radiation from stressed rock and key issues on crust stress remote sensing
Abstract:

Crust stress is recognized as the vital force of solid earth hazards including earthquake, landslide and rock burst. The Curst Stress Field Altering (CSFA) in not only the source of solid earth hazards, but also the results of rock fracturing and earthquakes. The precursors of coming earthquake is essentially the particular appearance or the spatio-temporal projection of CSFA and the accumulated crust stress before shocking. Crust Stress Remote Sensing (CSRS) is a new paradigm of Remote Sensing, which can pave the way to making earthquake prediction possible. However, the traditional science and technology of remote sensing, which we call as Side-A of Remote Sensing, is theoretically based on the physical-chemical property of target and the radiation characteristics of surface conditions, without consideration to the additional radiation in condition of stress and fracturing. Present remote sensing physics has insufficient interpretation on the abnormal infrared-microwave radiation preceding earthquakes. As the theoretical foundation of CSRS and the new science and technology of remote sensing on additional radiation from stressed and fracturing solid, which we call as Side-B of Remote Sensing, it is urgently demanded to establish the physical mechanism of additional radiation from loaded rock and the quantitative technologies for separating additional electromagnetic radiation from noisy backgrounds. This paper briefly reviews international studies on infrared and microwave anomalies related to tectonic earthquakes. It also systematically establishes the achievements of electromagnetic radiation experimental observations in the domain of solid mechanics, which include thermal imaging analysis of material stress and damages, and the thermal image, thermal spectrum and microwave radiation observation on loaded rock to fracturing. The main achievements of studies on the mechanism of altering electromagnetic radiation from loaded rock to fracturing are also introduced. Such studies focus on (1) the rock physics mechanism including the effects of piezoelectric mineral crystals, discharging of crack tips, escaping of free electrons, and energy balance in an isolated system, (2) the quantum mechanics mechanism including the energy jump due to atom vibration and molecule rotation, and (3) the remote sensing physics mechanism including the effect of changing dielectric effect and changing surface emissivity. Referring to the coupling behaviors of multiple spheres of Earth system driven by CSFA, the principles and shortcomings of both the effect of battery transfer in crust rock and the effect of underground radon emission are also analyzed, and the multiple scale properties of Earth system response on seismogenic activities are finally presented. With regard to the Geophysical Satellites Plan in China, the key technologies are suggested, including the optimal selection of sensitive wave bands and its configuration for CSRS satellites, the remote sensing identification and combined diagnosis of tectonic activities and earthquake precursors, and the synergic observation with the use of spaceborne, airborne, and ground-based platforms on CSFA appearances as well as intelligent analysis.

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