首页 >  2008, Vol. 12, Issue (5) : 1993-2002

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10.11834/jrs.200805105

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农村中小学布局调整之空间可达性分析——以河南省巩义市初级中学为例
1.河南大学中澳地理信息分析与应用研究所,河南开封 475004;2.河南大学环境与规划学院,河南开封 475004;3.河南大学黄河文明与可持续发展研究中心,河南开封 475001
摘要:

中小学布局调整是教育主管部门面临的一项重要任务,涉及教育资源的公平分配和合理利用,影响到义务教育法的落实和实施.在探讨中小学布局调整原理与方法的基础上,使用地理信息系统(GIS)技术建立人口分布、学校分布和交通条件等数据库,计算空间可达性指标,定量分析每一个居住区位学生上学的便捷程度,评估教育资源的空间分布差异,为学校布局规划提供重要的参考依据.使用比例模型、最近距离模型、机会积累模型、重力模型和改进重力模型,以巩义市初级中学为例,揭示学校分布与人口分布之间的关系,期望为农村中小学布局调整提供评估方法和规划依据.案例研究发现:农村义务教育在资源配置、最近入学距离、择校机会、供需平衡方面仍有一定的不均衡性.建议使用GIS和空间可达性指标评估中小学布局调整的公平性;进一步探索学生择校的空间规律,并使用Huff模型模拟学校与学生的最佳配置,为布局调整奠定定量分析基础.

Analysis of Spatial Accessibility for School Redistricting in Rural China:a Case Study of the Secondary Schools in Gongyi City,Henan Province
Abstract:

As a result of birth rate decreases in China, the total number of pupils has steadily reduced since 1990s.Inevitably, restricting the prmi ary and secondary school is an mi portant issue for local governments. Meanwhile, along with a number of school closures in recent years in rural China, new problems are frequently reported, such as a long distance of traveling to school for some communities, the quota excess of teaching classes in many schools and uneven distribution of teaching resources among schools. For school redistricting planning, both the educational equality and school efficiency is mi portant. The objective of this paper is to assess the educational equality by introducing geographic information systems (GIS) and the conceptof spatial accessibility in school redistricting.Based on the literature review of the planning principles and methods for school redistricting considering the educational need and supply and the service equality and efficiency, the authors attemptto introduce a framework ofschool planning in ruralChina. The key technicalprocedures are enlarginggeographic database such as schools, geodemographics and transportation networks, and calculating the spatialaccessibility ofschoolservices forevery communityusing GIS. The spatial accessibility indices are used to assess the spatial equality of educational service and tomeasure the rationality of school redistricting. The spatial relationshipsbetween population distribution and secondary schools inGongyiCity, Henan Province are evaluated using five accessibility measures,ie.the ratio mode,l nearest distance mode,l chance accumulationmode,l gravitymodel and mi proved gravitymode.l The case study shows that there are uneven spatial patterns in terms of the per capita educational resources, the distance to nearest schoo,l the chance of school choice and the balance between school supplies and community needs.The locationa advantages or disadvantages identified in the thematicmaps have potentials in future school planning. The\nauthors argue to introduceGIS technology and spatial accessibilitymodels in school redistricting in ruralChina. It is also\nsuggested to explore and verify the spatial patterns of school choice and estmi ate detailed school supplies and community needswith usingHuffmode,l which lays a theoretical foundation for school facility planning.

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