首页 >  2018, Vol. 22, Issue (4) : 709-712

摘要

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DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20188054

收稿日期:

2018-02-02

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生物多样性监测网络建设进展
1.中国科学院植物研究所 植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093;2.中国科学院大学 资源与环境学院, 北京 100049
摘要:

生物多样性是生物及其与环境形成的生态复合体以及与此相关的各种生态过程的总和。由于气候变化、人类活动的加剧,生物多样性正在经受前所未有的快速变化,各国政府和相关国际组织已经积极投入到生物多样性监测和保护中。为了解生物多样性的现状和变化规律,全球性、区域性及国家性生物多样性监测网络陆续建立。地球观测组织—生物多样性监测网络(GEO BON)作为全球性网络,目的是建立和完善生物多样性监测核心指标EBV(Essential Biodiversity Variables),推动监测指标的标准化和全球化,为数据共享和大尺度生物多样性变化评估奠定基础。在区域尺度上,欧盟成立了EU BON,亚太地区成立了AP-BON。在国家尺度上,瑞士、英国、日本等均建立了监测网络。中国科学院在“十二五”期间成立了中国生物多样性监测与研究网络(Sino BON),对中国生物多样性的变化开展长期的监测与研究。生物多样性监测依赖于传统调查方法与先进技术结合,如红外相机、基因技术、无人机技术等。遥感能够提供大范围、全覆盖的生物多样性信息,是未来大尺度生物多样性监测的重要手段之一。为此,GEO BON成立了“生态系统结构”组主要研究如何建立基于遥感数据的EBV。Sino BON也引入了无人机近地面遥感技术探讨更大区域的生物多样性监测。未来随着中国综合地球观测系统的完善,Sino BON的地面观测将更好地与卫星数据结合,实现生物多样性天地一体化监测,服务于中国生物多样性保护与评估。

Advances in biodiversity observation network
Abstract:

Biodiversity is the variability of ecological organisms and their environment. It is also the foundation of ecosystem services as the material basis for humans. Climate change and irrational human activities have resulted in unprecedented rapid loss of biodiversity. Governments and relevant international organizations have been actively engaged in global action for monitoring and protection of biodiversity. To better understand the current status and changes of biodiversity, biodiversity monitoring has evolved from a single site to observatory networks. At the global scale, the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) is representative and primarily develops and refines Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs). At the regional scale, the European Union has established the EU-BON, and the Asia-Pacific region has set up AP-BON. At the national scale, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Japan have established a national biodiversity monitoring network. The Chinese Academy of Sciences has built the China Biodiversity Monitoring and Research network (Sino BON) during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan. The monitoring network focused on forests, grasslands, deserts ecosystem, mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, insects, soil fauna, and microorganisms. Biodiversity monitoring not only relies on traditional manual surveys but also uses new technologies, such as genetic barcoding, camera traps, and drones. Remote sensing can provide continuous biodiversity information at a large scale and is thus expected to be an important method for observing biodiversity. GEO BON established the "Ecosystem Structure" workgroup to develop RS EBVs for measuring or modeling globally with the integration of remote sensing and in-situ observations. Sino BON also established a forest tower crane network to monitor the biodiversity of canopies and introduced unmanned aerial vehicle lidar and hyperspectral remote sensing for biodiversity monitoring at a large scale. The development of China GEOSS is expected to enable integration of the ground observation provided by Sino BON into satellite data. This integration will achieve biodiversity monitoring from space to ground and will benefit the biodiversity conservation and evaluation in China.

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