The temporal and spatial coupling of population and economy is an important embodiment of the spatial equilibrium of regional social and economic development in China. It can effectively guide the development and implementation of policies and measures of economic spatial pattern, civil affairs, transportation development, and environmental management in China. The paper achieves to reveal the temporal-spatial trend and coupling of population and social economy. Under the support of geographic information system, several methods are applied in the study, such as index of population structure distribution, Gini coefficient of population density, migration of population gravity center, and spatial autocorrelation analysis. County-level census data in the years of 1935, 1953, 1964, 1982, 2000, and 2010 were interpolated into a grid format, and population density line was further extracted to analyze the changes and trends of population distribution in China. Population and social economic statistics in different provincial administrative units from 1952 to 2010 were combined. The study revealed a spatial-temporal difference of social economy and population distribution, and further analyzed the distribution and its trend of population and social economy from two angles:population and economic center of gravity space coupling, and spatial consistency. Spatial-temporal evolution of population spatial distribution varies in China because of the effect of social history, natural environment, and economic conditions. The difference between east and west regions is large, and the imbalance of the situation is becoming increasingly obvious. The line of Hu Huanyong can still be a good generalization of population distribution in China. The characteristic of spatial distribution pattern is still narrow and thick in the southeastern region, and sparse and wide in the northwest region. In addition, according to the change of population density line, population distribution densities in Gansu, Ningxia, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous have increased obviously. Population distribution has broken the line limitation of Hu Huanyong in partial area in China and has transferred to the west region at some extent. Different regional characteristics of spatial distribution and economic development of population are remarkably obvious in China. However, the consistency of the provinces is shrinking, and the population has a strong economic orientation. Population and economic consistency, and their change trends in the country and the four major regions are different during 1952-2010. The degree of national demographic and economic space consistency is relatively low. Population distribution and social economy in the northeast area have a high consistency degree and continues to improve. The eastern and central regions are in a stable condition. The situation in the western region is poor and still weak.