首页 >  2016, Vol. 20, Issue (5) : 1170-1184

摘要

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引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20166171

收稿日期:

2016-05-13

修改日期:

2016-06-13

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中国灾害遥感研究进展
1.中华人民共和国民政部 国家减灾中心 卫星减灾应用中心, 北京 100124;2.中华人民共和国民政部信息中心, 北京 100721
摘要:

随着灾害系统理论的深化和遥感技术的快速发展,中国灾害遥感研究与应用服务取得了丰硕成果。本文以灾害系统理论为基础,从“天-空-地-现场”一体化灾害立体监测体系、灾害要素分类体系、灾害遥感服务体系和标准规范建设等方面,总结了灾害遥感理论研究进展。分析了洪涝、干旱、地震、地质灾害等主要灾害遥感监测评估方法,并对应用研究热点和存在的问题进行了讨论。分3个阶段阐述了中国灾害遥感系统的发展历程,基于业务应用需求介绍了灾害遥感业务系统的体系架构。按照灾害遥感日常监测业务、应急监测业务和特别重大自然灾害损失评估等3个方面介绍了业务应用模式,并从时效性、评估精度和业务流程等方面对业务应用进展水平进行了评述。分析了当前灾害遥感研究与应用工作面临的机遇与挑战,对今后发展提出了加强灾害遥感应用机理研究、加快防灾减灾空间基础设施建设、加强灾害监测评估方法研究、提升综合减灾空间信息服务能力和加强软环境建设等对策建议。

Research progress of disaster remote sensing in China
Abstract:

The research and application of disaster remote sensing in China has achieved fruitful results given the deepening disaster system theory and the rapid development of remote sensing technology. On the basis of disaster system theory, this study comprehensively summarizes the research progress of disaster remote sensing theory from the aspects of the three-dimensional "space-air-ground" disaster monitoring system, disaster element classification system, disaster remote sensing service system, and standard and specification construction. The methods for the remote sensing monitoring and assessment of disasters are also analyzed. The significant issues in application research and existing problems are discussed. The three stages of the development of China's disaster remote sensing system are then introduced. The system architecture of the operational system of disaster remote sensing is proposed on the basis of application needs. The business application mode is described according to the disaster remote sensing monitoring of daily business, emergency monitoring business, and major natural disaster damage assessment. Moreover, the business application development level is evaluated in terms of timeliness, evaluation accuracy, and business process. Finally, opportunities and challenges faced by the current disaster remote sensing research and applications are analyzed. Some suggestions, such as strengthening the research on disaster remote sensing mechanism, accelerating the space infrastructure construction for disaster prevention, strengthening the research on disaster monitoring and assessment methods, enhancing the comprehensive service capability using disaster spatial information, and strengthening soft environment construction, are suggested for future development.

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