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引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20244014

收稿日期:

2024-01-08

修改日期:

2024-04-18

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月球南极阿蒙森(Amundsen)地区地质特征及演化历史研究
摘要:

直径约103 km的阿蒙森(Amundsen)撞击坑是月球南极地区最显著的地貌特征之一,该撞击坑底部发育有大面积的平原地貌及永久阴影区,且存在氢元素的富集,是开展月球南极地区挥发分着陆探测的重要候选着陆区之一,然而对该区域仍缺乏聚焦性的区域地质特征及演化历史研究。面向未来月球极区着陆探测需求,本文利用地形、光谱、光照条件等多源高分辨率遥感探测数据,对阿蒙森地区的地质背景信息及详细地质特征进行了系统性研究。阿蒙森坑地形特征保存较为完好,为月表典型的复杂撞击坑之一,其坑底分布了面积超过2000 km2的平原地貌,平均坡度小于5°。基于物质成分及反照率分析,本文发现这些坑底平原具有高反照率、贫铁元素的特征,显著不同于月海平原,说明其可能是来自薛定谔盆地的溅射物,而不是火山喷发产物。同时,阿蒙森地区还表现出氢元素的富集,水冰探测潜力较大。本文还绘制了阿蒙森地区大比例尺地质图,并梳理了区域多期次地质演化历史。通过与嫦娥四号任务着陆区所在的冯·卡门坑底月海平原对比,本文认为阿蒙森坑底平原具备开展着陆探测的地形条件,但是其特殊的光照、温度及物源特征也为开展着陆原位探测带来了科学机遇和技术挑战。

Geological characteristics and evolution history of the Amundsen crater at the south pole region of the Moon
Abstract:

The Amundsen impact crater, with a diameter of about 103 km, is one of the most significant geomorphological features in the south polar region of the Moon. The crater floor hosts extensive plain terrains and permanent shadowed regions, with the enrichment of hydrogen elements, making it one of the most prioritized candidate landing areas for future volatile prospecting missions in the lunar south polar region. However, the detailed geological characteristics and evolution history of this region are poorly constrained. To serve future exploration needs of the lunar polar regions, we systematically investigated the geological context and characteristics of the Amundsen region using multi-source high-resolution remote sensing data including topography, spectroscopy, and solar illumination conditions. The topographical signature of the Amundsen crater is well preserved and is one of the representative complex impact craters on the Moon. Over 2000 km2 of plain terrains occur on the crater floor, with an average slope less than 5°. On the basis of composition and albedo analyses, we found that these floor plains are characterized with high albedo and low iron content, obviously different from mare plains, indicating that these plains probably originated from ejecta materials from distant impact craters/basins, especially the Schrodinger basin, rather than volcanic eruption. In addition, the Amundsen crater area is also characterized with elevated abundance of hydrogen, showing its great potential for water ice prospecting. We also cratered a new, large-scale geological map of the Amundsen area, and sorts out the regional multi-stage geological evolutionary history. Through comparison with the Von Kármán crater mare plain where China’s Chang"e-4 mission landed, we suggest that the Amundsen crater floor plain has the topographical conditions for soft landing efforts, while its special characteristics of solar illumination condition, surface temperature, and the provenance of the plains materials bring both scientific opportunities and technological challenges for landing exploration missions.

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