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引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20233248

收稿日期:

2023-06-29

修改日期:

2023-12-10

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巨星座时代遥感卫星应用技术挑战与思考
康利鸿, 田菁, 江碧涛
北京市遥感信息研究所
摘要:

从上世纪70年代以来,我国遥感卫星系统经历了模拟式时代到数字式时代的发展,建成了稳定运行的遥感卫星系统及相应的应用体系,当前正在向智能化、网络化的遥感巨星座时代迈进。为了更好地推动国家遥感卫星事业发展,有必要站在当前历史发展的机遇期,详细梳理其面临的技术挑战,确定未来技术攻关方向,为我国遥感卫星巨星座时代的到来预置技术、做好准备。本文通过总结回顾我国遥感卫星系统的发展历程和建设成就,从应用系统建设的角度分析了遥感卫星走向巨星座时代面临的技术挑战,特别是海量数据处理技术和大规模星群控制技术的挑战,分析了完全依靠星上智能处理存在的问题,提出了地面支持下的星上智能处理模式,在分析目前星上自主任务规划能力现状基础上,提出了基于数字孪生的星地一体智能任务管理和分布式智能协同模式。最后梳理了智能遥感巨星座1.0到3.0三个阶段的发展路线及需要关注的关键技术,为国内遥感领域应用技术研究提供借鉴。

Challenges and Research on Remote Sensing Satellite Application Technology in the Giant Constellation Era
Abstract:

[Objective]Since the 1970s, China has made remarkable achievements in the field of remote sensing satellite systems. Now, it is moving towards the era of intelligent and networked giant remote sensing satellite constellations. The realization of the networking and intelligence of the giant remote sensing satellite constellation is not a one-off process. In order to better promote the development of the national remote sensing satellite industry, it is necessary to stand at the current opportunity period of historical development, carefully sort out the technical challenges it faces, determine the direction of future technological breakthroughs, and prepare for the arrival of the era of remote sensing satellite constellation in China. [Method]This paper reviews the development history of China"s remote sensing satellite system and analyzes the technical challenges faced by the development of giant remote sensing constellation.Firstly, facing the massive data processing problem brought by the remote sensing constellation, this paper focuses on the on-orbit data pre-processing method and intelligent information extraction method, analyzs the problems of relying solely on on-board intelligent processing, and proposes an on-board processing mode supported by the ground. Secondly, facing the complex problem of managing tasks in a large constellation, the current status of on-board autonomous mission planning capabilities is analyzed, and a digital twin-based integrated intelligent mission management and distributed intelligent collaboration model is proposed.[Result]Overall, China is currently in the stage of limited intelligent processing on board and ground-based processing, and is entering the stage of simple mission control on board and ground-based control. Driven by the improvement of intelligent processing capabilities on board, the development of remote sensing constellations towards the ideal "organic giant constellation" can be divided into three stages, that is giant remote sensing constellation 1.0 to 3.0. [Conclusion]In conclusion, we must carry out the integrated design and technical layout of the intelligent giant remote sensing constellation system as a whole, combining both space and ground elements, as early as possible. We must also undertake key technical research on inter-satellite high-efficiency and high-reliability communication technology, evaluation and performance optimization technology for remote sensing intelligent interpretation algorithms based on random sample data, digital twin-based integrated intelligent mission planning technology for space and ground, on-orbit unsupervised continuous self-learning theories and methods for intelligent processing of remote sensing satellite data, and event-driven rapid task allocation technology for large-scale constellations.Through these efforts, we aim to promote the development of national remote sensing satellites into a new era of intelligence.

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