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引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20233090

收稿日期:

2023-03-24

修改日期:

2023-05-23

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基于改进GAN的手绘特征草图虚拟地形生成方法
张晓媛, 陈斌
北京大学 地球与空间科学学院
摘要:

三维虚拟地形生成目前广泛应用于野外虚拟地理环境、数字孪生城市建设等,是实现地理元宇宙发展的重要组成部分。传统生成三维虚拟地形的方法存在生成地形真实度不够、重复地形块与网格伪影等问题。基于此,提出一种改进生成对抗网络的手绘特征草图虚拟地形生成方法。以条件生成对抗网络和pix2pix架构为参考,提出虚拟地形生成网络模型,通过改进生成器U-Net网络,增加随机噪声,替换损失函数,提高模型训练的效率及生成地形的真实性。同时,利用精度较高的黄土高原部分地区数字高程模型数据为样本,构建用于虚拟地形生成模型的地形特征数据集,提取真实地形特征开展虚拟地形生成网络训练。最后,完整构建从手绘特征草图到虚拟地形的模型推理流程。实验结果表明,利用黄土高原地形数据和改进后的虚拟地形生成模型,能够满足用户在输入手绘地形特征草图后获得符合地形特征描述、高真实感的虚拟地形,在三维地形建模与编辑方面具有良好的发展前景。

Generation method of hand-drawn feature sketch virtual terrain based on improved generative adversarial network
Abstract:

3D virtual terrain generation is currently used in geography teaching, setting up relevant virtual scenes according to the teaching content, which can visually display the verification experimental conditions and results and enhance the universality of virtual geography experiments; in the field of digital twin smart city, traffic and water simulation, constructing virtual terrain according to the real terrain can provide the basic environment for subsequent development and experiments; in military simulation, it can quickly build beyond the real scenes of extreme training environment, which has an important role in improving military training and enhancing combat capabilities, etc. Hand-drawn feature sketches can express 3D virtual terrain under human subjective perception. Therefore, how to use hand-drawn feature sketches to quickly build 3D terrain environment and generate realistic virtual geographic environment is a hot spot and difficult point for the creation and development of geographic metaverse with virtual geographic environment as the core in the future. Although the traditional method of generating 3D virtual terrain provides an important reference for image cross-domain generation from hand-drawn feature sketch to virtual terrain, there are still problems such as insufficient realism of the generated terrain, especially when the terrain feature outline is too sparse, the generated terrain will have duplicate terrain blocks and grid artifacts. Based on this, a hand-drawn feature sketch virtual terrain generation method with improved generative adversarial network is proposed. The model is based on extracted data samples and hand-drawn sketch characteristics, and the input terrain feature information is involved in the sampling process of each layer by improving the generator U-Net network, which enhances the control role of terrain features in the invisible space, reduces the possibility of model collapse, increases the random noise input, and improves the realism of the generated terrain, especially the detail when the terrain feature elements in the sketch are sparse The L1 loss (mean absolute value error function) and L2 loss (mean variance error function) are combined to form the smooth L1 loss, and then optimized with CGANs loss function to form a new generator loss function to improve the stability and efficiency of model training; the digital elevation model (DEM) data of some areas of the Loess Plateau with high accuracy is selected to produce data. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data with high accuracy are selected and used for model training to quantitatively compare and test the terrain generation enhancement effect before and after model improvement. Finally, the model inference process from hand-drawn feature sketch to virtual terrain is completely constructed. The experimental results show that the improved virtual terrain generation model with the Loess Plateau terrain data can represent the hand-drawn feature sketch well, and the generated terrain basically conforms to the distribution and orientation of the terrain features described in the sketch, especially in the case of sparse sketch, the generated terrain has high realistic surface details. Applying this model to the real natural landscape display and terrain evolution, it is found that it can meet the user"s needs to obtain the virtual terrain with high realistic feeling after inputting the hand-drawn terrain feature sketch. This improved model proposed in this paper has good prospects for 3D terrain modeling and editing.

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