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Intelligence is an important direction of bridge construction, while the digital twin is an effective way to realize intelligent bridge construction. Digital twin maps the structure, state and behavior of bridges in real environment into a virtual environment, which provides a new means to thoroughly understand and precisely control the bridge construction process. First, this paper analyzed the background and development trend of high-precision digital twin and intelligent construction of bridges and their environment. Then a digital twin construction method for whole process of bridge construction was put forward, and several key technologies such as space-air-ground integrated monitoring data association and fusion, digital twin scene intelligent construction and enhanced visualization, process dynamic simulation and intelligent prediction was discussed. Finally, it took the construction of large bridges in complex and dangerous mountainous areas as an experiment case to carry out application analysis. The proposed method is expected to provide effective theoretical guidance and key technical support for intelligent construction of large bridge engineering in complex environment.