首页 >  2022, Vol. 26, Issue (10) : 2094-2105

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DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20210389

收稿日期:

2020-09-20

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InSAR与激光雷达测高集成的马兰山冰川物质平衡变化
庞书剑1,2,柯长青1,周兴华2,张其兵3,范宇宾1,喻薛凝1
1.南京大学 地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023;2.自然资源部第一海洋研究所, 青岛 266000;3.湖南文理学院 资源环境与旅游学院, 常德 415000
摘要:

冰川物质平衡是反映冰川消融与积累关系的重要指标,也是联系冰川与气候变化的纽带,对于评估冰川动态变化具有十分重要的意义。马兰山冰川位于青藏高原北部,作为东昆仑山系中消融最为剧烈的冰川之一,为了评估其在全球气候变暖背景下的物质平衡变化,利用TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X合成孔径雷达数据、ICESat-2激光雷达高度计数据、SRTM DEM数据,基于合成孔径雷达干涉测量和激光雷达测高技术对其2000年—2020年高程变化进行了研究,并估算了物质平衡。结果表明:近20年来,该区域41条冰川平均表面高程变化-5.64±0.96 m,物质平衡为-0.24±0.06 m·w·e/a,呈明显负平衡状态。其中,2000年—2012年冰川的消融速度(-0.30±0.04 m·w·e/a)要略快于2012年—2020年消融速度(-0.22±0.11 m·w·e/a)。结合GPCC(Global Precipitation Climatology Centre)降水与GHCN_CAMS(Global Historical Climatology Network)气温再分析数据集可知:自2000年以来,马兰山冰川整体受夏季气温升高影响,消融剧烈,年降水量微弱增加仅弥补了少部分由升温带来的物质亏损。此外,由于2012后气温增速变慢,夏季气温波动降低,导致了冰川在2012年—2020年间消融速度有所减缓。根据Landsat-7遥感影像发现,马兰山南坡存在一条跃动冰川,跃动发生于2007年—2012年间,冰川末端在此期间异常增厚并前进了约251 m。

Glacier mass balance changes in Malan Mountain based on InSAR and LiDAR altimetry
Abstract:

Glacier mass balance is a significant indicator of glacier accumulation and ablation state, and it also reflects the relationship between glacier and climate forcing, which have great impacts on evaluating glacier dynamics. Due to the continuous accumulation of greenhouse effect, large amount of mountain glaciers in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China has been continuously depleted since 1970, especially in the East Kunlun Mountains and the inner regions of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The large-scale and long-term observation of glacier mass balance is usually estimated according to the elevation change of the glacier surface by the remote sensing means of synthetic aperture radar interferometry, Lidar altimetry technology and photogrammetry using optical stereo image. In this work, we choose Malan Mountain, located in the north of Tibet Plateau, as our study area, which is one of the most ablated glacier regions in East Kunlun Mountains. To assess glacier mass change in Malan Mountain in recent two decades, we utilize SRTM DEM, TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X, and ICESat-2 data to estimate its glacier mass balance during 2000—2012, 2012—2020, and 2000—2020. In order to obtain the true value of the long time change of glacier surface elevation, we take the following steps. Firstly, three kinds of elevation data were registered to eliminate the spatial errors, and then the penetration depth of ice in the East Kunlun Mountains was estimated by statistical method according to the difference between SRTM-X DEM and SRTM-C DEM. Finally, the accurate ice elevation change value was obtained by seasonal correction according to the seasonal change of glacier. The results show that: (1) During 2000—2020, 41 glaciers in Malan Mountain display remarkably negative mass change (-0.24 ± 0.06 m·w·e/a) and their overall elevation change is -5.64 ± 0.96 m. Besides, we also compare glacier mass change in Malan Mountain during two subperiods and we find that glacier ice mass loss rate is more apparent during 2000—2012 (-0.30 ± 0.04 m·w·e/a) than 2012—2020 (-0.22 ± 0.11 m·w·e/a). (2) Based on GPCC (Global Precipitation Climatology Center) and GHCN_CAMS (Global Historical Climatology Network) reanalysis dataset, we discover that the evidently negative mass change in Malan Mountain during 2000—2020 is mainly attributed to increasing summer temperature. Albeit slightly increasing annual precipitation for glacier ice mass accumulation in recent two decades, it still cannot compensate ice mass loss caused by increasing summer temperature. Additionally, we also find that the decreasing glacier ice mass loss rate during 2012—2020 is predominantly ascribed to decreasing summer temperature in this period. (3) According to Landsat-7 images during 2007—2012, we discover a surging glacier in the southern slope of Malan Mountain and its terminus advances approximately 251 m during this period.

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