Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC) impacts local energy and water balance and promotes a net carbon emission to the atmosphere globally. Based on the latest released annual ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) global land cover dataset, which provides long time sequenced land cover changes at 300 m resolution from 1992 to 2015, the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving forces of major land cover change along the Belt and Road Initiative were analyzed. Results indicated that cropland, grassland, and built-up land increased by 190.00×103 km2, 57.97×103 km2, and 260.39×103 km2, respectively, whereas forest, shrub, wetland, and water decreased by 61.14×103 km2, 34.22×103 km2, 74.28×103 km2, and 44.41×103 km2, respectively. In addition, the spatial patterns of land cover changes during 2000—2015 in the Belt and Road Initiative was consistent with that of the period 1992—2000. However, some new characteristics of land cover changes emerged in different regions of the Belt and Road Initiative in 2000—2015. The rates of built-up land expansion and forest loss increased in Southeast Asia, whereas the rates of cropland growth and shrub loss decreased significantly. The built-up land continued to expand at a high speed, and the area of grassland increased in East Asia, whereas the area of cropland continued to decrease, and the rate of forest loss has dropped significantly. The expansion rate of built-up land decreased in Central and Eastern Europe, whereas the rate of cropland shrinkage accelerated. In Russia, built-up land expansion slowed down continually, and forest area increased slightly. In addition, the growth rates of grassland and shrub decreased in Russia. The analysis further shows that population growth, climate change, socio-economic development, and government-related policies are the main drivers of land cover change in countries along the Belt and Road Initiative.