首页 >  2022, Vol. 26, Issue (6) : 1143-1154

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DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20221540

收稿日期:

2021-08-10

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钦江河口潮滩红树林群落空间分布
王日明1,2,梁喜幸1,3,周晓妍3,黄鹄2,戴志军3
1.北部湾大学 钦州市环境生态修复重点实验室, 钦州 535011;2.北部湾大学 广西北部湾海洋灾害研究重点实验室, 钦州 535011;3.华东师范大学 河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062
摘要:

红树林群落是热带亚热带河口有特色的生态系统,在消浪促淤及存储碳方面具有重要价值。但受到全球海平面上升与人为干扰影响,红树林生境受到破坏,群落结构脆弱。基于此,本文以现场校核的无人机正射影像为数据源,结合历史遥感影像、钦江河口水体盐度与潮滩沉积物采样分析,研究钦江河口潮滩红树林群落空间分布格局及主控要素。结果表明:(1)潮滩分布的红树植物主要有桐花树、无瓣海桑等,其中桐花树为绝对优势种的“纯红树植物”群落,自河口向沿感潮河段逐渐发展成“红树植物—半红树植物”群落与“红树植物—半红树植物—非红树植物”的混合植物群落。(2)桐花树是钦江河口红树林向海发育的前沿先锋树种,二年生桐花树苗分布最前沿高程低于当地海平面0.11 m,当年胎生苗分布最前沿高程为当地海平面以下0.37 m;桐花树也是钦江感潮段上溯分布极限的树种,当年胎生苗上溯分布极限为距河口10.18 km。(3)潮位与盐度是控制红树林群落在钦江河口分布的主要因子,沉积物粒径的粗细影响红树植物生长与发育。研究成果可为热带山区型河口潮滩红树林保护与红树林生态修复工程提供重要理论和技术指导。

Spatial distribution pattern of mangrove community in tidal flats of the Qinjiang Estuary
Abstract:

Mangrove community is a special ecosystem along tropical and subtropical estuaries. It has important values in attenuating large waves, promoting silting, and storing carbon. However, due to the global sea level rise and human disturbances, mangrove habitats have been destroyed with fragile community structures. Therefore, based on the UAV orthophoto image with field verification, historical remote sensing images, water salinity, and sediment samples in tidal flats along the Qinjiang estuary, the spatial distribution patterns of mangrove community in the tidal flat and associated influence factors of the Qinjiang estuary were analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) Tidal flats of the Qinjiang estuary mainly consist of A. corniculatum and S. apetala, where the “mangrove pure forest community” with A. corniculatum is an absolutely dominant species in this area. Meanwhile, gradually developed patterns from “mangrove pure forest community” in the estuarine tidal flats are found in the combination of “mangrove plant–semi-mangrove plant” and “mangrove plant–semi-mangrove plant–non-mangrove plant” in the tidal reach. (2) A. corniculatum is the frontier pioneer tree species of the seaward grown mangroves in the Qinjiang estuary. The forefront elevation of the A. corniculatum biennial seedling distribution is 0.11 m below local sea level, and the forefront elevation of A. corniculatum viviparous seedling distribution is 0.37 m below local sea level. Meanwhile, the distributed limit of the mangroves in the upstream of the Qinjiang Estuary is A. corniculatum, where the location of distribution limit in viviparous seedlings in that year is 10.18 km away from HS00 station. (3) The tidal water level and salinity of the Qinjiang estuary are the main driving factors for the distribution of mangrove communities, and the growth and development of mangrove plants were determined by the variations in grain size of sediments. These findings can provide theoretical and technical guidance for the present ecological restoration projects of mangrove communities in the mountainously tropical- estuaries of the world.

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