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Earthquake loss assessment is an important part of both earthquake emergency preparedness, emergency response and reconstruction. With the higher awareness to earthquake risk and the increasing demand for earthquake protection and disaster reduction, earthquake disaster loss assessment technology has achieved rapid development in recent years. At the same time, as remote sensing technology enters the era of big data, remote sensing data starts to be widely used in earthquake loss assessment. In this context, this paper firstly reviews and summarizes the development of earthquake loss assessment and its use of remote sensing techniques. (1) Reviews the development of earthquake loss assessment, and compares and analyzes the differences between a loss calculation method and the main functions of the Earthquake loss assessment software platforms at home and abroad. (2) The calculation method of estimating casualties, injuries and economic loss is summarized according to whether or not structural damage is taken into account. (3) Summarizes the development of emergency earthquake loss assessment methods and earthquake loss prediction methods based on remote sensing. (4) As a population and GDP data spatialization tool, the application prospect of night light remote sensing data in earthquake disaster loss is analyzed. Then the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) In recent years, the calculation granularity of the domestic earthquake disaster loss estimation system has gradually become finer, and the applied structural damage estimation method has changed from the traditional empirical earthquake damage matrix to the fragile curve, and the system application scenario has developed from the post-earthquake period to the full-time application; (2) Seismic loss assessment based on macro data and historical earthquake cases is easy to calculate, but its reusability needs to be improved. Comparatively, various sophisticated methods considering building losses are logical reasoning but restricted by data completeness to varying degrees. (3) The post-earthquake loss assessment technology and earthquake damage prediction technology based on remote sensing have been gradually improved, and the current development trend is multi-source remote sensing data and intelligent remote sensing data analysis method. Finally, this paper summarizes some problems existing in the current earthquake loss assessment work, including data completeness hinders the promotion of new methods, the lack of a national common business platform, and the lack of uncertainty expression. Finally, some suggestions are put forward, such as (1) Further develop the role of remote sensing data in the entire process of earthquake disaster loss estimation. (2) Build a professional, high-quality, national unified earthquake disaster risk management platform. (3) Enrich and develop the expression of earthquake disaster assessment results from the perspective of the audience.