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引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20231590

收稿日期:

2021-09-01

修改日期:

2021-10-26

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大型煤炭基地生态系统服务功能遥感评估及演变分析 —以宁东为例
孙灏, 高金华, 崔希民, 王国瑞, 李培现
中国矿业大学(北京)
摘要:

生态系统服务功能是人类从生态系统中获得的直接收益,因此从服务功能角度评估矿区生态系统状况具有重要意义。以大型煤炭基地宁东为例,在阐述矿区生态系统状况遥感监测研究现状和进展的基础上,设计了遥感数据驱动的气候调节、防风固沙、固碳释氧、水源涵养和土壤保持五项生态系统服务功能计算方案,利用长时间序列连续数据评估了上述功能的时空演变,衡量了矿区生产活动对地表生态系统的影响。应用Mann-Kendall非参数检验实现对研究区生态系统服务功能的时空动态评估。研究结果表明:(1) 从2001到2019年,宁东基地生态系统服务功能整体呈改善趋势,其中气候调节、固碳释氧、防风固沙改善趋势非常显著,水源涵养出现轻微下降现象,土壤保持处于基本不变的状态。(2) 空间分布上,远离采煤工作面的区域生态系统服务功能比较强,反之则比较弱。(3) 矿区与非矿区对照分析表明,矿区生产活动迟滞了生态系统服务功能的增加,其中非矿区的气候调节功能的上升速率约为矿区上升速率的2倍,非矿区防风固沙和固碳释氧功能的上升速率约为矿区上升速率的1.5倍。研究区生态系统服务功能的整体改善,可能是气候环境变化和人工修复活动的综合结果,但鉴于其整体改善速率明显低于非矿区,说明煤炭开采活动造成了一定的负面影响,仍然需要加大对生态系统保护和修复的力度。

Remote sensing of ecosystem service function in large coalmining base - taking Ningdong, China as an example
Abstract:

Ecosystem service function (ESF) is the direct benefit obtained by human beings from the ecosystem. Thus, it is significant to monitor the ecosystem status from the perspective of ESF. Taking a large coalmining base Ningdong, China as the study area, we designed remote sensing-based methods to calculate five important ESFs: climate regulation (CR), wind prevention and sand fixation (WS), carbon sequestration and oxygen release (CO), water conservation (WC), and soil conservation (SC). Subsequently, we capitalized on long-term data to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of those ESFs and evaluate the effect of coal-mining on ecosystem from the perspectives of ESF. Results demonstrated that: 1) From 2001 to 2019, the ESF of the study area showed an overall improvement trend, where the CR, WS, and CO have a very significant increasing trend. The WC decreased slightly, and the SC were found basically unchanged. 2) With regard to the spatial distribution, the ESF is relatively high for areas far away from the coal-mining face, otherwise it is relatively low. 3) Contrast analysis between coalmining area and non-coalmining area indicated that coalmining impedes the increase of ESF in the study area. The increasing rate of CR in non-coalmining area are about twice that in coalmining area. The increasing rate of CO and WS in non-coalmining area is about 1.5 times that of the coalmining area. The overall improvement of ESF in the study area may be the comprehensive result of climatic environment change and artificial restoration activities. However, the overall improvement rate is significantly lower than that of non-mining areas, which implies that the coal mining activities have caused a certain negative impact on ESF and it is still necessary to strengthen the protection and restoration of the ecosystem.

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