首页 >  2021, Vol. 25, Issue (9) : 2015-2026

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DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20211352

收稿日期:

2021-05-26

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高分遥感技术助力森林火灾应急扑救及隐患预判—以冕宁“4·20”森林火灾为例
唐尧1,2,王立娟1,2,邓琮3,甘玉泉4,赵娟5
1.四川省安全科学技术研究院, 成都 610045;2.四川安信科创科技有限公司, 成都 610045;3.四川交通职业技术学院, 成都 611130;4.四川省森林消防救援总队作战训练处, 成都 610045;5.高分辨率对地观测系统四川数据与应用中心, 成都 610000
摘要:

高分遥感具有“易得性高”、“流程简便”、“空间分辨率高”、“星多幅宽”、“获取信息丰富”及“长时序观测能力强”等优点,对实现森林火灾“打早、打小、打了”防控目标提供了重要技术手段。本文将高分遥感技术利用于四川冕宁“4·20”林火灾害应急扑救,通过高分遥感纹理特征快速提取林火要素,获得火场附近水源位置、救援力量及扑救路线等信息;利用其波谱特征感知区域的亮温异常,以发现火点、监测火场态势演变及火情发展;基于光谱特征开展动态监测过火区范围及迁移变化,预判火情发展趋势,实时提出扑救应急部署建议,支撑救灾;选用归一化植被指数(NDVI),完成过火区、过火烈度信息提取及初步灾损评估。针对火后次生隐患,结合过火区分布及地形因素,圈定了28条火后潜在泥石流沟,提出基于泥石流沟内高烈度面积占比、主沟长度、沟床纵比降、流域面积及沟内过火区平均坡度等影响因子,对潜在泥石流沟易发性进行评价,预判其中4条为高易发、11条为中易发、13条为低易发。研究结果为林火扑救应急决策者有效部署扑灭力量、科学决策及火后预判次生隐患、灾后重建等防灾减灾活动提供重要决策支撑依据。

Research on the emergency response of forest fires in Sichuan with the help of high-definition remote sensing technology: An example of emergency monitoring of forest fires in Mianning “4·20”
Abstract:

High-scoring remote sensing has the advantages of “high availability”, “easy process”, “high spatial resolution”, “multiple satellites”, “rich information acquisition” and “strong long-term observation ability”, etc., which are useful for realizing forest fires. The prevention and control objectives of “playing early, playing small, and fighting” provide important technical means.In this paper, the high-scoring remote sensing technology is used in the emergency rescue of the “4·20” forest fire disaster in Mianning, Sichuan, and the forest fire elements are quickly extracted through the high-scoring remote sensing texture features to obtain information about the location of the water source near the fire site, rescue forces, and fire-fighting routes; use it The spectral characteristics sense the abnormal brightness temperature in the area to detect fire points, monitor the evolution of the fire situation and the development of the fire; carry out dynamic monitoring of the range of the fire area and migration changes based on the spectral characteristics, predict the development trend of the fire, and propose emergency rescue deployment suggestions in real time. Support disaster relief; use the Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) to complete the extraction of fire areas, fire intensity information and preliminary disaster assessment.In view of the secondary hidden dangers after the fire, combined with the distribution of fire areas and topographical factors, 28 potential debris flow gullies were delineated after the fire, and it was proposed based on the proportion of the high intensity area in the debris flow gully, the length of the main gully, the vertical drop of the gully bed, the drainage area and the gully. Influencing factors such as the average slope of the internal fire zone are used to evaluate the susceptibility of potential debris flow gully. Four of them are predicted to be highly prone, 11 are medium prone, and 13 are low prone.The research results show that high-scoring remote sensing technology can predict forest fire emergency rescue and post-fire secondary hidden hazards, effectively support forest fire disaster emergency treatment, and the method has good timeliness and generalizability. It is an emergency decision-making for forest fire fighting. Disaster prevention and mitigation activities such as effective deployment of fighting forces, scientific decision-making, prediction of secondary hazards after fire, and post-disaster reconstruction provide important decision support basis for disaster prevention and mitigation activities.

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