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引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20221186

收稿日期:

2021-04-01

修改日期:

2022-03-14

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大尺度生态质量遥感评价方法构建及应用研究
高吉喜, 万华伟, 王永财, 侯鹏, 施佩荣, 孙晨曦
生态环境部卫星环境应用中心
摘要:

生态系统是人类生存和经济社会可持续发展的基础,开展生态质量评价为制定生态保护修复政策和服务于生态文明建设提供科学依据。本文从国家尺度生态质量评价年度业务化需求出发,以生态学理论为基础,构建了一套表征“功能-稳定-胁迫”三个维度的生态质量评价体系,利用植被参量和土地利用等遥感数据,对2000-2018年陆地区域生态质量进行了监测和评价。结果表明2018年全国生态质量整体状况良好,生态质量中等以上比例达到了36.98%,差等生态质量仅占4.33%。福建、海南、广西等地生态质量最优;2000-2018年全国53.97%的区域生态质量呈改善趋势,其中2011年之后改善趋势更为明显;全国部分区域生态质量形势仍然严峻,生态系统功能低、生态系统稳定度差,生态系统胁迫处于较高水平。从全国生态质量评价的应用结果来看,构建的生态质量评价体系方法科学、简单快速、经济可行,能满足区域或国家生态系统质量快速评估的需求。

A new framework for large scale ecological quality remote sensing evaluation and application research
Abstract:

Ecosystem is the basis for human survival and sustainable economic and social development. Carrying out ecological quality evaluation provides a scientific basis for formulating ecological protection and restoration policies and serving the construction of ecological civilization. Starting from the national-scale annual operational evaluation requirements for ecological quality, this paper constructs a remote sensing evaluation framework for ecological quality that characterizes the three dimensions of "function-stability-stress" based on land use and vegetation parameter data. The ecological quality was monitored and evaluated, and the results showed that,in 2018, the overall ecological quality of the country was in good condition, with 36.98% of the ecological quality above average, and only 4.33% of poor ecological quality. Fujian, Hainan, Guangxi and other places have the best ecological quality; From 2000 to 2018, 53.97% of the regional ecological quality showed an improvement trend, and the improvement trend was more obvious after 2011. The ecological quality situation in some regions of the country is still not severe, the ecosystem function is low, the ecosystem stability is poor, and the ecosystem stress is at a high level. Summarizing from the application results of the national ecological quality assessment, we can see ecological quality assessment system is scientific, simple, fast, and economically feasible, and can meet the needs of rapid assessment of regional or national ecosystem quality.

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