首页 >  2021, Vol. 25, Issue (3) : 708-724

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DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20210052

收稿日期:

2020-03-09

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轻小型无人机测绘遥感系统研究进展
张继贤1,2,刘飞1,王坚3
1.中国矿业大学 环境与测绘学院, 徐州 221116;2.国家测绘产品质量检验测试中心, 北京 100830;3.北京建筑大学 测绘与城市空间信息学院, 北京 100044
摘要:

地球空间信息是人工智能、大数据时代的重要数据基础,轻小型无人机测绘遥感技术作为中国当前和未来获取厘米级分辨率、实时响应遥感数据的主要手段,必将发挥更加重要的作用。本文首先介绍了固定翼、多旋翼、无人直升机以及飞行控制系统、地面监控系统和遥控遥测链路的发展现状和潜在发展趋势;其次重点研究了数码相机、视频摄像机、倾斜相机、激光雷达、合成孔径雷达和定姿定位系统的利用现状和发展趋势;然后总结分析了当前无人机测绘遥感面临的系统检测、大范围实时遥感和遥感大数据精准解译方面的问题和挑战;最后面向人工智能、大数据、物联网、云计算等技术背景给出了轻小型无人机测绘遥感技术在飞行控制智能化、测绘遥感作业智能化和实时、实景无人机遥感技术应用模式创新等方面的发展趋势。

Review of the light-weighted and small UAV system for aerial photography and remote sensing
Abstract:

Geospatial information is important in the era of artificial intelligence and big data. Small, lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for aerial photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (RS) technology, as the main means of obtaining centimeter-scale resolution and real-time remote sensing data, may be expected to play an important role in these fields.First, this paper focuses on the development status and trends of UAV aerial photogrammetry and RS systems. Fixed-wing, lightweight, and small UAVs are an early type of aircraft in the field of surveying and mapping. The hand-throwing and vertical take-off and landing characteristics of fixed-wing UAV systems have prompted the development of these technologies toward the intelligent direction. Multi-rotor UAVs are important instruments in remote sensing mapping, but their flight duration requires further improvement. Unmanned helicopters are widely used in the remote sensing mapping of heavy loads, but this technology is greatly affected by cost, control complexity, and other factors. Digital camera, video camera, tilt camera, lidar, SAR, POS, and other loads are highly useful in surveying and mapping; however, because the detection and calibration of new sensors and UAV systems has not been optimized, the development of new technologies and equipment is limited to a certain extent.Next, the problems and challenges of system detection, large-scale real-time remote sensing, and accurate big data interpretation of UAV aerial photogrammetry and RS data are summarized and analyzed. UAV aerial photogrammetry and RS systems are widely used, but the detection methods and standards of UAV systems aimed at environmental adaptability, flight performance, navigation control accuracy, and electromagnetic compatibility have not been perfected. The real-time multi-level transmission technology of video, imagery, and other surveying and mapping data must be further developed for emergency rescue. The data obtained each year by UAV aerial photogrammetry and RS are more than PB and mostly used to produce standard surveying and mapping products. However, the data collected are insufficient for data mining and analysis.Finally, facing the technical backgrounds of artificial intelligence, big data, Internet of things, and cloud computing, among others, future development directions of intelligent flight control, UAV operation, and real-time, real-scene UAV remote sensing technologies are provided. The continuous development and improvement of the industry and rapid promotion of market demands, aerial photogrammetry, and RS technology of lightweight and small UAVs may be expected to promote industrial changes in earth observation and accurate public perception, potentially forming a new industry worth over 100 billion US dollars.

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