首页 >  , Vol. , Issue () : -

摘要

全文摘要次数: 148 全文下载次数: 307
引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20210428

收稿日期:

2020-09-25

修改日期:

2021-05-04

PDF Free   EndNote   BibTeX
移动地理信息系统技术发展的三个时代
乔彦友, 常原飞
中国科学院空天信息创新研究院
摘要:

为了明晰的理清移动地理信息系统技术发展脉络,本文简述了信息技术变革是如何推动该技术向嵌入式时代、移动互联网时代、智能物联网时代不断演变,并依次分析了每个时代的技术架构及其典型应用,在此基础上提出了集成全球导航定位、5G、人工智能和计算机视觉等信息技术于一体的新一代移动地理信息系统概念,分析了其具备的泛在化、实时化、智能化特征,论述了支撑三大特征的跨平台内核、同步定位与全息高精度导航地图、语义地图和智能决策三种核心技术,总结其发展和应用的变化趋势,并对其前景进行了展望,对后续移动GIS的发展有一定的指导意义。

Three Development Stages of Mobile Geographic Information System Technology
Abstract:

In this paper, the development of mobile geographic information system (MGIS), which is driven by the change of information technology, is clarified and divided into three eras: embedded era, mobile Internet era and intelligent Internet of things era. At the end of 1990s, with the completion of global positioning system(GPS) deployment in the United States, in order to facilitate field data acquisition, the functions related to information acquisition of desktop GIS system were transplanted to personal digital assistant(PDA) and other embedded devices, MGIS entered the "embedded era" combined with GPS. In this period, the stand-alone version of MGIS has been successfully applied in the field data collection of land, forestry, surveying and mapping and other industries. Although MGIS had some online functions at that time, the bandwidth of mobile network was not enough to support high-frequency network GIS services. With the rise of 3G / 4G and other broadband mobile networks and the popularity of intelligent mobile terminals (especially Android mobile phones), MGIS has gradually entered the "mobile Internet era". In this period, the core module of MGIS was translated from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to wireless communication network. The most typical applications in this era are the map APP developed by Google, Baidu and other electronic map service providers and its related location based services(LBS) APP. At this time, MGIS has extended to the entire geographic information industry chains, involving data collection, data processing, platform software, industry applications, etc. "Cloud + End" constitutes a new ecosystem of geographic information. However, due to the problems of cloud computing, such as less real-time, insufficient bandwidth, large energy consumption, not conducive to data security and privacy, MGIS in this era is still in the traditional artificial ground operation stage, which is difficult to provide real-time spatial analysis, target recognition and other intelligent processing. With the ubiquitous development of Internet of things (IOT), especially the development of computer vision (CV), artificial intelligence (AI), 5G mobile communication, edge computing and other technologies, MGIS technology gradually enters the "intelligent Internet of things era" around 2019. The main technical features of this stage are intelligent, real-time and ubiquitous GIS, and the system architecture evolves into "cloud + edge + end". In this era, everyone is a sensor and plotter. A large number of intelligent sensors such as cameras and radars integrated on ground mobile platforms (wearable devices, vehicles, etc.) and air mobile platforms (unmanned aerial vehicles, etc.) have emerged, which can help us locate and provide holographic maps information such as acoustic-optic-magnetic information. These Internet of things terminals can be used as carrier of MGIS. The massive raw data of collected images, videos, locations and other data are no longer all uploaded to the cloud, but are analyzed and processed in real time by AI and other technologies on the network edge devices , and only the results are transmitted to the cloud. This mode greatly reduces the pressure of network bandwidth, data center power consumption, the system delay, and enhances the service response ability. At the same time, because users no longer upload privacy or sensitive data (only stored on network edge devices), the risk of network data leakage is greatly reduced, and user data security and privacy are protected. On this basis, a new generation of MGIS is proposed, which integrates GNSS, 5G, AI, CV and other information technologies. Its ubiquitous, real-time and intelligent features are analyzed, and three core technologies, including cross-platform kernel, simultaneous localization and mapping, pan-information-based high precision navigation map, semantic map and intelligent decision-making, are discussed, the development trend and direction are predicted.

本文暂时没有被引用!

欢迎关注学报微信

遥感学报交流群 分享按钮