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全文摘要次数: 267 全文下载次数: 156
引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20210263

收稿日期:

2020-07-10

修改日期:

2020-10-25

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多空间尺度下城市热环境与不透水面聚集密度响应关系研究——以北京市为例
孟庆岩1, 王子安1, 张琳琳1, 孙震辉2, 胡蝶1, 杨天梁3,3
1.中国科学院空天信息创新研究院;2.天津城建大学地质与测绘学院;3.三亚中科遥感研究所
摘要:

针对以往城市热环境与不透水面聚集密度响应规律研究不足的问题,本文以北京市为例,基于MODIS 数据计算城建区与边缘区平均温度差值为热岛强度,结合热岛强度等级特征,选取热岛强度等级期望值较高的6个典型区域,研究热岛强度等级与不透水面聚集密度的响应关系;进而利用Landsat数据反演地表温度,研究城建区与精细尺度下地表温度对不透水面聚集密度响应临界点与最优尺度。结果表明:(1)不同热岛强度等级的出现频率、其在白天与夜间的变化程度与不透水面聚集密度有一定相关性,且相近的不透水面聚集密度下所表现出热岛强度的变化特征相似。(2)主要城建区内地表平均温度与不透水面聚集密度的分布特征存在较显著的一致性,随着尺度半径r的增大其响应越明显。且地表温度对不透水面聚集密度的响应存在一个临界点,随着尺度半径r减小,响应临界点逐渐增大:尺度半径r=1000m时,不透水面聚集密度达到60%后其影响趋于减弱;r=500m、r=300m时临界点分别为69%与83%。(3)不同典型区域的最优尺度存在差异,西二旗、西三旗、回龙观最优尺度为150m,东四、地安门、新街口与四环四季青桥附近为60m,而季节变化对最优尺度的影响较小。该最优尺度可在一定程度上衡量不同区域不透水面分布的破碎程度及地表类型的单一程度。本研究可为城市规划与管理、城市热岛治理提供参考依据。

Study on the Response Relationship between Urban Thermal Environment and Impervious surface distribution density at Multi-spatial Scale——Taking Beijing as an Example
Abstract:

With the rapid development of urbanization, the natural landscape has been replaced by impermeable surfaces, which change the surface radiation, thermal characteristics and humidity of urban areas. Among these effects, urban heat island (UHI) is a phenomenon in which the atmosphere or surface temperature in an urban area tends to be higher than the surrounding environment. As the process of urbanization continues to accelerate, the UHI effect continues to intensify. Research and treatment of UHI effect play an important role in energy consumption, air quality, environmental health, etc. With the development of remote sensing technology, the impact of UHI is usually estimated based on thermal infrared remote sensing technology. Due to the convenient transportation and continuous coverage in urban areas, UHI has attracted more and more attention in recent decades. Land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal infrared remote sensor is one of the most commonly used indicators in UHI analysis. An accurate representation of the temporal and spatial variation of UHI is a prerequisite for sustainable urban development. Therefore, studying the relationship between urban thermal environment and impervious surface is of great significance to further improve the quality of human settlements and control urban heat islands. In view of the insufficient research on the response law of urban thermal environment and the impervious surface distribution density (ISDD) in the past, this paper selected Beijing as a case study. Based on MODIS data, the average temperature difference between the urban construction area and the marginal area was calculated as the urban heat island intensity (UHII). In combination with the characteristics of UHII level, six typical regions with high expected value of UHII level were selected to study the response relationship between UHII level and ISDD. Finally, Landsat data was used to invert surface temperature to study the critical point and optimal scale of surface temperature response to ISDD in both urban construction areas and typical regions. The results showed that: (1) The frequency of occurrence of UHII levels, their variation degree during the day and night have a certain correlation with ISDD, and the variation characteristics of UHII under similar ISDD are similar. (2) The distribution characteristics of the surface mean temperature in urban construction areas and ISDD are obviously consistent. As the scale radius r increases, the response is more obvious. Besides, there are critical points for the response of the surface temperature to ISDD. The response of critical points gradually increases with the decrease of scale radius r. When the scale radius r=1000m, the ISDD reaches 60% and its influence tends to weaken; the critical points of r=500m, r=300m are 69% and 83%, respectively. (3) There are differences in the optimal scales of different typical regions. The optimal scale of Xierqi, Xisanqi, and Huilongguan is 150m, and that of Dongsi, Di’anmen, Xinjiekou and Qingqiao near the fourth ring is 60m. However, seasonal changes have little impact on the optimal scale. The optimal scale can measure the degree of fragmentation of impervious surface distribution in different regions and the single degree of surface type to some extent. This study can provide a reference for urban planning and urban heat island governance.

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