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The three-dimensional radiation transmission model can accurately describe the interaction between vegetation canopy heterogeneity and solar radiation, and has important guiding significance for vegetation quantitative remote sensing modeling and application by using high-resolution optical images. In this paper, probability plants with statistical significance of actual plants are used to construct a three-dimensional vegetation canopy. Combining Monte Carlo ray tracing technology and canopy porosity calculation, a three-dimensional canopy radiation transmission simulation model with statistical characteristics was constructed by rationally designing the random transmission process of optical particles in the canopy. Taking the corn canopy with typical ridge planting structure as an example, the optical BRF simulation of the corn canopy in different growth periods was carried out and compared with the multi-angle observation data. The comparison results show that the model has a good simulation accuracy for the optical BRF of corn canopy in different growing periods.