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地震孕育过程伴随物质迁移、能量释放与信息交换。通过遥感手段获取地表、大气及电离层变化信息,进行地震异常分析与前兆识别,已成为遥感与地震科学交叉研究热点。本文收集整理了2008年汶川大地震以来,国内外发表的该地震潜在遥感异常研究论文；回顾了盖层、大气层、电离层的20个遥感参量异常显现的个体特征,分析了其时空关联性,揭示了总体时空特征。表明：1)汶川地震遥感异常显现是逐渐增多、增强和聚拢的,地震短临前兆突出；2)震前3个月开始,短-临遥感异常由盖层、大气层往电离层渐次显现,与岩石圈-盖层-大气层-电离层 (LCAI) 耦合范式吻合；3)短-临遥感异常显现位置与发震断层相关性较强,主要集中于龙门山断裂带(LMSFs)及其周边区域；4)多种短-临遥感异常区覆盖震中位置,且多个条带状异常区与LMSFs走向一致,体现了孕震后期LCAI耦合的局地效应。本研究有益于内陆大地震孕育后期的遥感监测分析,也可为地震预测研究提供参考。
The preparation and occurrence of an earthquake is a complicated process and usually accompanied with material migration, energy release and information exchange, whereby the radiation balance in the seismogenic zone can be broken. Obtaining the changing information of coversphere, atmosphere and ionosphere through satellite remote sensing, analyzing seismic anomalies and identifying earthquake precursory, have become the interactive hotspot of remote sensing and seismology. As a typical case behaving a lot of observed anomalies preceding the main shock, the grate Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake and its physical mechanism of relevant seismic anomalies are still worthy of further study. Based on the published research results, this paper has systematically collected and filtered the possible remote sensing anomalies of the Wenchuan earthquake under certain criterion, summarized the respective abnormal features of 20 remote sensing parameters related to the coversphere, atmosphere, and ionosphere, which including 5 coversphere-related parameters, 8 atmosphere-related parameters and 7 ionosphere-related parameters. By mapping all the anomalies in a unified framework, the spatio-temporal correlations among anomaly-manifestations are analyzed, and the overall spatio-temporal characteristics of short-term manifestations of multiple anomalies are revealed. The results of this research can be summarized as: 1) the manifestations of remote sensing anomalies were increasing, enhancing and congesting gradually before Wenchuan earthquake, and the impending precursors of earthquake are prominent; 2) the remote sensing anomalies developed bottom-up from coversphere, atmosphere to ionosphere three months before the shock, which is in accordance of the paradigm of Lithosphere-Coversphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LCAI) coupling; 3) there existed evident strong spatial correlation among seismic faults and the manifestation positions of short-term-to-impending remote sensing anomalies, which congested along Longmenshan faults and its nearby region; 4) multiple short-term-to-impending remote sensing anomalies covered the epicenter of the main shock, and multiple strip-shaped anomalies developed along Longmenshan faults, which reflects the local effect of LCAI coupling in the later stage of seismogenious process. In general, the clustering multi-parameters remote sensing anomalies before May 12 can be regarded as Wenchuan earthquake anomalies with a precursory significance. At the macroscopic scale, through the deep understanding of the multiple geosphere coupling of the whole earth system, the seismic response driven by the deep planet Earth can be reasonably explained. In-depth analysis of individual characteristics, spatio-temporal correlation and overall laws of Wenchuan earthquake remote sensing anomalies during the earthquake preparation process is of great significance for exploring the physical mechanism of seismic anomalies. This retrospective research provides heuristic clues about the energy exchange process of the Wenchuan earthquake and confirms the great potentiality of multi-parameters for earthquake precursor research. Furthermore, this work is benefit for satellite monitoring and synergic analyzing of inland great earthquakes during its later stage of earthquake preparation and provide reference to earthquake prediction study.