首页 >  2020, Vol. 24, Issue (2) : 182-198

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DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20208248

收稿日期:

2018-06-11

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不透水面与地表径流时空相关性研究——以杭州市主城区为例
要志鑫1,孟庆岩2,3,孙震辉2,柳树福2,张琳琳2
1.中国地质大学 地球科学与资源学院, 北京 100083;2.中国科学院遥感与数字地球研究所, 北京 100101;3.三亚中科遥感研究所, 三亚 572029
摘要:

城市化进程中不透水面的扩展对城市地表水文循环产生了显著影响。研究不透水面与地表径流时空相关性能缓解城市内涝灾害,可为“海绵城市”提供建设意见。本文以杭州市主城区为例,提出结合BCI指数(Biophysical Composition Index)的线性光谱分解方法提取不透水面、植被和土壤盖度,提高了传统的线性光谱分解方法的精度。进一步结合SCS-CN模型(Soil Conservation Service Curve Number Method)模拟1990年—2017年杭州市主城区地表径流,在此基础上计算景观格局指数,研究杭州市主城区不透水面与模拟地表径流的时空特征,探究不透水面与模拟地表径流的关系。结果表明:(1) 研究区近30年不透水面聚集度较高且呈增长趋势,增长速率趋于平稳,上城区和下城区不透水面面积占比最高,江干区、西湖区和拱墅区增长速率和增长强度相对较大。(2) 研究区近30年模拟地表径流不断增长,220—240 mm的径流由中心城区向四周辐射,上城区和下城区模拟地表径流最高,与不透水面的演变趋势总体一致。(3)不透水面的空间格局与模拟地表径流高度相关,不透水面的斑块数量和破碎度与地表径流呈负相关,斑块所占景观比例、斑块密度、斑块聚集等与模拟地表径流正相关,可通过合理控制相关景观指标、优化不透水面空间格局控制地表径流。在此基础上提出了防止城市内涝的建议:增加绿地、花园等用地类型;减少大面积不透水面斑块,划分成更多的小斑块等。

Temporal and spatial correlation between impervious surface and surface runoff: A case study of the main urban area of Hangzhou city
Abstract:

In the process of urbanization, the expansion of impervious surface has a significant impact on the urban surface hydrdogical cycle, studying the temporal and spatial correlation between impervious surface and surface runoff can alleviate urban waterlogging, which can provide some suggestions for the construction of "sponge city" and scientific basis for the improvement of urban drainage system. In this work, the combination of linear spectral decomposition method with BCI index and SCS—CN model are used to simulate the surface runoff changes caused by impervious surface in the main urban area of ??Hangzhou in 1990—2017. Moreover, the landscape pattern index is calculated to explore the relationship between impervious surface and surface runoff. Results show that: (1) In the main urban area of ??Hangzhou, the impervious surface is high and increasing during the past 30 years, and the growth rate tends to be stable. The impervious surface area of ??Shangcheng District and Xiacheng District has the highest proportion. Jianggan District, Xihu District, and Gongshu District have a large growth rate and intensity. (2) In the past 30 years, the surface runoff of Hangzhou’s main urban area continued to increase, and the 220—240 mm runoff radiated from the center of the city to the surrounding area. The surface runoff of Shangcheng District and Xiacheng District was the highest, which was roughly consistent with the evolution of impervious surface. (3) The spatial pattern of impervious surface is highly related to surface runoff. The number and fragmentation degree of impervious surface are negatively correlated with surface runoff, and the proportion of patch occupied landscape, patch density, and patch aggregation are positively correlated with surface runoff. Surface runoff can be controlled by optimizing the space patterns of impervious surface, such as reducing large areas of impervious surfaces and increasing the number of impervious surface patches.

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