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Objective Ecological protection and restoration for Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes, and Grasslands is an important measure to ensure national ecological security. In this study, we developed scientific and rational monitoring and performance evaluation methods to ensure the successful implementations of ecological protection and restoration projects and the sustainable development of ecological restoration achievements. Method This study uses a combination of literature review and case analysis to discuss the specific application of remote sensing technology in the monitoring and performance evaluation of ecological restoration for Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes, and Grasslands. Result Based on the pattern and quality of regional ecosystem, the land cover type, vegetation growth and water quality parameters obtained from remote sensing data are selected as evaluation indices to monitor ecological elements of Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes, and Grasslands as a whole. To maintain and improve the regional ecosystem services, we choose water conservation, soil erosion, ecosystem bearing capacity and other indicators to discuss the role of remote sensing data in assisting the performance evaluation of ecological protection and restoration projects of Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes, and Grasslands. Conclusion The results show that actively exploring new remote sensing data mining methods, combining remote sensing technology and traditional investigation methods are expected to form a more objective, faster, executable monitoring and performance evaluation system for ecological protection and restoration projects of Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes, and Grasslands.