首页 >  2020, Vol. 24, Issue (7) : 1993-2002

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引用本文:

DOI:

10.11834/jrs.20200098

收稿日期:

2020-03-17

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新冠病毒疫情期间复工复产卫星遥感监测
陶金花1,范萌1,顾坚斌1,陈良富1,2
1.中国科学院空天信息创新研究院 遥感科学国家重点实验室, 北京100101;2.中国科学院大学, 北京100049
摘要:

本文利用美国新一代极轨卫星NPP搭载的VIIRS载荷数据反演获得的热点数据,以及美国NASA的Aura卫星搭载的OMI载荷的二氧化氮对流层柱浓度资料,对中国地区2020-01—02及2019年同期,以及抗击疫情期间和后期复工复产的情况进行监测。监测结果表明:(1)2020-02较1月份及2019年同期相比,工业企业的耗能水平却出现显著降低,NO2浓度呈现显著下降趋势。(2)全国工业热源点数和分布范围及密度自2020-02-03正式复工后稳步提升。湖北省除武汉、黄石和鄂州地区仍可监测到少数热点外,其他地区2月份均未再监测到任何热点,也证明了湖北基本没有复工迹象。(3)疫情得到基本控制之后,京津冀地区工业热源点有显著增加,但新增区域一般仍处于低能耗水平。从全国大气NO2柱浓度监测来看,复工开始前后与2019年同期相比,污染物浓度均呈现明显下降趋势,说明复工强度有限。(4)到3月初工业热源点及其能耗水平出现显著升高,中国大部分地区的热源企业虽已逐步复工生产,说明工业产能较2月有显著提升,但生产规模或产能并未完全恢复。

Satellite observations of the return-to-work over China during the period of COVID-19
Abstract:

As the coronavirus COVID-19 broke out in the Chinese city of Wuhan and spread across China in late January 2020, governments at all levels in China introduced many policies (e.g. closing factories and schools, staying indoors and clearing street) to limit the further transmission of the illness. Chinese industrial activity was impacted and the return-to-work was delayed by the combination of the Chinese New Year holiday and COVID-19 outbreak. And with the abatement of COVID-19 in China, many provinces have downgraded their emergency response levels. Industrial factories stared to re-open, and people gradually returned to their jobs. In this paper, based on the satellite data, we compared and analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of industrial hot spot and tropospheric NO2 VCDs before and after the COVID-19 outbreak to estimate the situation of return-to back rate in China. Generally, several heavy industrial sectors with high-energy consuming (e.g. smelting industries, petrochemical industries and cement industries) have a close relationship with heat-related activities, and the heat emissions can reflect the level of energy consumption to some extent. Therefore, such industrial thermal anomalies have the potential to be detected by satellites sensors with infrared channels. NO2 primarily comes from fossil fuels burning, such as industrial emissions, power plants and vehicles, and it is a key indicator of industrial activities. NO2 measured by satellite from high above Earth’s surface are a good indicator of the geographical location of air pollution because NO2 has a life span of about a day, and thus is concentrated near its sources. Here, the industrial hot spots and the tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Density (VCD) data over China during the periods from January to February in 2020 and 2019, respectively, were used for evaluating the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on China’s return-to-work. The industrial hot spots were extracted from the fires/thermal anomalies results which were retrieved by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the new generation of polar-orbiting satellite, Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP). The tropospheric NO2 VCD data were directly obtained from the NO2 standard product of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on Aura satellite. Our results indicate that there is a significant reduction of levels of energy consumption and NO2 emissions in February 2020, compared to those of both January 2020 and February 2019. Since the end of the Chinese New Year holiday on February 3, 2020, the number, range of distribution and density of industrial hot spots over China has been steadily rising. Except for a small amount of industrial hot spots still being detected in Wuhan, Huangshi and Ezhou, no more industrial hot spot was monitored in other cities of Hubei province in February 2020, meaning that there is no sign of return-to-work in the whole Hubei province. As the coronavirus epidemic eases in China, although the number of industrial hot spots increased remarkably over Jing-Jin-Ji region, the FRPs and tropospheric NO2 VCDs of most grids with increasing spots were still at low levels, compared to the same period in 2019. It means that production capacities of most heavy industries are limited under the influence of COVID-19 outbreak. Until the early March, both the number and averaged FRP of industrial hot spots began to gradually rise, which reflects the increasing return-to-work rate of heavy industries over most regions of China.

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