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In the current remote sensing surveying and mapping, development and application of three-line array CCD sensor is an important direction. But in the investigation and technical processing of airborne three-line array CCD camera, it is still the imported ADS series cameras occupying the mainstream. In this paper, focusing on the first China self-developed airborne three-line array CCD camera (hereinafter referred to as GFXJ), a series of innovative research work is carried out on the geometric calibration technology of domestic GFXJ camera. Firstly, a comparative analysis is made on the imaging characteristics and geometric deformation factors of GFXJ camera. Upon this, a piece-wise self-calibration model based on CCD tilt angle is established. Then, an iterative two-step calibration scheme is proposed. Finally, multiple sets of flight experimental data were obtained in the Songshan national remote sensing comprehensive field and Hegang area of Heilongjiang Province. The proposed iterative two-step calibration scheme was applied to accurate tilt angle calibration of each CCD detector in the forward, nadir and backward CCD array, and reliable CCD image pixel coordinate files was generated for forward, nadir and backward array independently. Experiments show that the piece-wise self-calibration model and the iterative two-step calibration scheme proposed in this paper have good applicability and effectiveness for GFXJ cameras. After calibration, the uncontrolled image positioning precision can be greatly improved. Supported by several control points for bundle block adjustment, the image positioning accuracy of GFXJ camera can meet the 1:1000 scale topographic mapping requirements on aerial triangulation. At the same time, the calibration model and calibration scheme established in this paper can provide reference for calibration study of other airborne linear array CCD cameras.